Life in Vancouver bc canada

About a year ago, i was living in an empty lot in a tent cooking out-side…  i would say i was more clean then today.. i am so luckyApril 29 2019 Chris jensen to have the people up stairs to continue feeding those nice little bugs…  They told me that it would be safe here as well, but i beg to differ! i also have an old man living next to me that can remove milk from milk, sugar from sugar, just all round helps himself to whatever i got…  Did mention that those people for the third floor come through my bathroom sealing…


Well i guess it would my fault for moving to this place i could have stayed outside…

Has anybody heard of castle greystone?¸¸¸

Thank You, have a nice day…

chris jensen

Tags & Graffiti April 2, 2017

Back on track, posting graffiti an tags about the midnight city of Vancouver British Columbia, Canada…

It’s been sometime, since i’ve been able to continue posting these images… Only now i’ve been feeling a little under the weather!

Nonetheless, will continue take photograph’s of what ever is see around he neighbourhood as i dig in the dumpsters for bottles, unwanted and or lost treasures…

The toad presents;

Tags & Graffiti April 2, 2017

tags & graffiti April 2, 2017

toad (chris jensen) thisoldtoad

Presidents in U.S. History (IQ TEST) 17

Current President, President Trump…

 17. George H. W. Bush – 130.1

George H.W. Bush served as the 41st president of the United States. He also served as the Vice President to Ronald Reagan prior to winning the presidency. Before serving as president, George H.W. Bush served in the Navy in World War II as an aviator. After serving in the Navy, Bush enrolled at Yale and later moved to Texas. He eventually entered the oil business and became a millionaire. H.W. Bush later got involved in politics and served as the Director of Central Intelligence and a member of the House of Representatives before winning the presidency.

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16. Richard Nixon – 131.0


With an estimated IQ score of 131, Richard Nixon is, without a doubt, highly intelligent. He was clearly intelligent enough to plot and manipulate throughout his presidency. Although Nixon’s  presidency was filled with scandal and he eventually resigned from office, Nixon did many good things while he was president, including ending the Vietnam war in 1973.

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15. George Washington – 132.5


George Washington served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He was smart as a whip even though he did not have a college degree. In addition, Washington served as a commander-in-chief and general during the American Revolution. He was quite a skilled military commander and led the colonial armies against the British.

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14. Franklin D. Roosevelt – 139.6


The 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt served from 1933 to 1945, the longest term to be held by a President. A central figure during the Great Depression and World War II, President Roosevelt was the author of the “New Deal”, a program for relief, recovery and reform that expanded the Federal Government.

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13. Abraham Lincoln – 140


Like James Garfield, Abraham Lincoln was a self-made man, became the 16TH President of the United States in 1861 and served until his assassination in April of 1865. Best as the President during the Civil War and his drafting of the “Emancipation Proclamation” in 1863 that freed the slaves.

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12. Barack Obama – 141.0

Barack Obama is the current president of the United States. He is also the first African American president. Researchers have estimated Obama’s IQ to be around 141. President Obama was a teacher and civil-rights lawyer before pursuing a career in politics. He attended Columbia University and Harvard Law School. In addition, Obama was a professor of law at one of the most prestigious universities in the nation, the University of Chicago.

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11. James Madison – 141.3

James Madison was the fourth President of the United States, serving from 1809 to 1817. Known as The “Father of the Constitution” he was an advocate for a strong federal government and was a co-author of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. While President he oversaw the Louisiana Purchase and led the country into war in 1812 against Great Britain.

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10. Chester A. Arthur – 141.5

Next in line is Chester A. Arthur who served as the 21St President of the United States, succeeding James Garfield after his assassination. A native of Vermont and an advocate for civil service reform, his term began in 1881 and ended in 1885 when he lost his position to Rutherford B. Hayes.

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9. James Garfield – 141.5

Notable for his high IQ and the shortness of his Presidential term, James Garfield became the 20TH U.S. President in March of 1991 and was assassinated in September of the same year. From humble beginnings, Mr. Garfield was raised in a log cabin in Ohio. A Major General for the Union Army, during the civil war he spent 18 Rising to the stature of a school president when in his mid-20’s James Garfield spent 1861 to 1881 as a U.S. House Representative for his home state, prior to becoming President.

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8. Theodore Roosevelt – 142.3

The 26TH President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt served from 1901 to 1909. A soldier, explorer, naturalist and reformer and coined the phrase, “Speak softly and carry a big stick; and you will go far.” Taking the office of president upon the assassination of William McKinley, he won office on his own merits in 1904 and served two consecutive terms.

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7. John Adams – 142.5

John Adams, the second President of the United States, is reported to have an IQ of 142.5. This IQ level is of a “highly gifted” individual. Of course he had to be smart to lead a very young nation in its formative years. John Adams was born in Massachusetts on October 30th, 1735. He was President from 1797 – 1801. He died on July 4th, 1826 at the old age of 90.

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6. Jimmy Carter – 145.1

Jimmy Carter was President of the United States from 1977-1981. The 39th President, is a Nobel Prize winner. He was also an officer in the army. And weirdly enough, is a former peanut farmer. Carter is from Georgia and was a Senator and Governor before becoming president. He’s 91 years old and is a cancer survivor.

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5. Woodrow Wilson – 145.1

The 28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson was in office from 1913-1921. He was the Governor of New Jersey before that. He was the president during World War I. He’s another president on the list that has received a Nobel Peace Prize. Wilson was a big advocate for immigrant rights.

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4. Bill Clinton – 148.8

The 42nd President of the United States, husband of the Democratic Presidential Nominee, and love of balloon, Bill Clinton. He served two terms from 1993 to 2001. His presidency is marred by his very public affair with a White House intern. He denied it, and was later impeached for lying under oath. He’s been a very popular president, with a high approval rating.

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3. John F. Kennedy – 150.7

One of the smartest Presidents on the list is also one of the most beloved. President John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of America. He served from 1961 until 1963, when he was tragically assassinated on November 23rd, 1963. He was shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald in the presidential motorcade. He was only 46. Many people think it was part of a larger conspiracy.

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2. Thomas Jefferson – 153.8

Thomas Jefferson, the 3rd president and the second smartest president. He was born in the colony of Virginia, before America was its own nation. He received his education at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA. Not only was he a lawyer before being president, but he was the primary writer of the Declaration of Independence.

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1. John Quincy Adams – 168.8

The sixth president of the United States, is the son of another member of this list, John Adams. He’s the smartest President in history. He was president from 1825-1829. He was one of the first politicians to be opposed to slavery. Where he’s from in Massachusetts is now named after him, Quincy.

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Bonus – Donald Trump – 125-ish

It seems like everyone has a strong opinion on the Donald; You either love him or you hate him. Say what you will about his politics, but the man is pretty successful, and most believe he’s also pretty smart. Depending on the source, his IQ is estimated between 120 and 130, although other sources have reported it as high as 156 (which would make him smarter than 99.9% of the population, so we find this one a little hard to believe).

Read more:

101 Library of Congress Magazine (Mr. Trump)

Library of Congress Magazine

From left: Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump at the Iowa Caucus celebration on Feb.1, 2016 | Dennis Van Tine, MediaPunch/ IPX; Barack Obama takes the oath of of ce on Jan. 20, 2009. Susan Walsh, Associated Press Photo/Corbis; Bill Clinton takes the oath of of ce on Jan 20, 1993, Of cial White House photo, Prints and Photographs Division; Chief Justice Warren E. Burger administers the oath of of ce to Ronald Reagan on Jan. 20, 1981. Architect of the Capitol, Prints and Photographs Division





Electoral College Primer Women On The Ballot


Papers of Presidents Inauguration Events Presidential Podcasts





Library of Congress Magazine
Vol. 7 No. 1: January/February 2017

Mission of the Library of Congress

e Library’s central mission is to provide Congress, and then the federal government, and the American people with a rich, diverse, and enduring source of knowledge that can be relied upon to inform, inspire, and engage them, and support their intellectual and creative endeavors.

Library of Congress Magazine is issued bimonthly by the O ce of Communications
of the Library of Congress and distributed free of charge to publicly supported libraries and research institutions, donors, academic libraries, learned societies and allied organizations in
the United States. Research institutions and educational organizations in other countries may arrange to receive Library of Congress Magazine on an exchange basis by applying in writing
to the Library’s Director for Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access, 101 Independence Ave. S.E., Washington DC 20540-4100. LCM is also available on the web at
All other correspondence should be addressed
to the O ce of Communications, Library
of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. S.E., Washington DC 20540-1610.
ISSN 2169-0855 (print) ISSN 2169-0863 (online)

Carla D. Hayden

Librarian of Congress

Gayle Osterberg

Executive Editor

Audrey Fischer


John H. Sayers

Managing Editor

Ashley Jones


Shawn Miller

Photo Editor

Contributing Writers

Barbara Bair
Barbara Bavis
Tom Bober
Robert Brammer Doris Kearns Goodwin Michelle Krowl

Julie Miller Janice E. Ruth

In is Issue




10 Campaigning for President

Presidential candidates have used the tools of popular culture to promote their campaigns and capture the imagination of the public for nearly 200 years.



02 Trending 22

  1. 04  First Drafts 23
  2. 05  Curators’ Picks 24
  3. 06  Page from the Past 25
  4. 07  Books that Shaped Us 26

15 Experts’ Corner 27

  1. 20  Online O erings 28
  2. 21  For You at the Library

ON THE COVER: Illustration | Ashley Jones


Twitter: @librarycongress
Youtube: Facebook: Flickr:


A Primer on the Electoral College

At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the founding fathers devised a system to elect the president that was designed to be fair to all of the states, no matter how populous.

Women on the Ballot 8 American woman have sought the presidential nomination for more

than a century—even before they had the right to vote.

Uncle Sam on the “Electoral College” campus


My Job at the Library Favorite Places Around the Library News Briefs

Shop the Library Support the Library Last Word

Gershwin Prize

Pinterest: Instagram: @librarycongress
Library of Congress blogs: LCM online:


Doris Kearns Goodwin

January/February 2017 |

This bronze bust of George Washington in the Great Hall of the Library’s Thomas Jefferson Building is a copy of a work by the French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828). Carol M. Highsmith Archive, Prints and Photographs Division





From left: Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump at the Iowa Caucus celebration on Feb.1, 2016 | Dennis Van Tine, MediaPunch/ IPX; Barack Obama takes the oath of of ce on Jan. 20, 2009. Susan Walsh, Associated Press Photo/Corbis; Bill Clinton takes the oath of of ce on Jan 20, 1993, Of cial White House photo, Prints and Photographs Division; Chief Justice Warren E. Burger administers the oath of of ce to Ronald Reagan on Jan. 20, 1981. Architect of the Capitol, Prints and Photographs Division



Today, social media provides an unlimited opportunity for individuals and media outlets to record and be a witness to such historical events as the presidential inauguration. ese sounds and images are then instantaneously shared through computers and mobile devices with a global audience.

is is, of course, a relatively new development.

For the nation’s rst 100 years, people got their news by word of mouth and from the printed page. Newspaper accounts of presidential inaugurations— with images largely engraved—informed the public. A number of proli c diarists provided rst-person accounts for those unable, or uninvited, to attend the festivities in the nation’s capital. ose who received telegrams or glimpsed the rst photographic image of the event—James Buchanan’s 1857 inaugural—must have felt that the modern age had truly arrived.

William McKinley’s March 4, 1897, inauguration was the rst to be recorded by a movie camera. e 2-minute lm footage shows the inaugural procession down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. Film footage from McKinley’s second inauguration in 1901 shows the president addressing crowds on Pennsylvania Avenue, riding in a processional to the Capitol and taking the oath of o ce. e short clips, produced by omas Edison, came to the Library through the copyright registration process and are part of the Library’s Paper Print Collection. Discovered in 1942, the paper copies were converted into projectable celluloid images.

McKinley was shot by an assailant while attending the Pan-American Exposition in Bu alo, New York, on Sept. 6, 1901, and died a week later

from complications. e Library holds lm footage of McKinley’s day at the exposition and scenes from his funeral in Canton, Ohio.

Calvin Coolidge’s inauguration in 1925 was the rst to be broadcast nationally on radio. e address delivered by the man known as “Silent Cal” could be heard by more than 25 million Americans, according to a New York Times report, making it an unprecedented national event.

Herbert Hoover’s inauguration in 1929 was the rst to be recorded by a sound newsreel. It marked the second and last time that a former president, William Howard Taft, administered the presidential oath.

Harry S. Truman’s inauguration in January 1949 was the rst to be televised, though few Americans owned their own set. In 1981, Ronald Reagan’s inauguration was broadcast on television with closed captioning for the hearing-impaired. During Reagan’s second inauguration in 1985, a television camera was placed inside his limousine—another rst—to capture his trip from the Capitol to the White House.

Bill Clinton’s 1997 second inauguration was the rst to be broadcast live on the Internet. President Clinton had signed the Telecommunications Act of 1996 at the Library of Congress the previous year.

Barack Obama’s historic rst inauguration on Jan. 20, 2009, garnered the highest Internet audience for a presidential swearing-in. It was the rst inaugural webcast to include captioning for the hearing-impaired. According to the Wall Street Journal, President Obama’s second inauguration generated 1.1 million tweets—up from 82,000 at the 2009 event.

From left: President Dwight Eisenhower responds to the crowd at his inauguration on Jan. 20, 1953. Associated Press, New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division; Herbert Hoover, Mrs. Hoover and William Howard Taft watch the inaugural parade on March 4, 1929, National Photo Company Collection, Prints

and Photographs Division;
Calvin Coolidge speaks at
his inauguration on March
4, 1925, National Photo Company Collection, Prints and Photographs Division; William McKinley takes the oath of of ce for a second term on March 4, 1901, Prints and Photographs Division.


Presidential Inaugurations

William McKinley Films lms-1901/

—Audrey Fischer

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |




Martha Jefferson Randolph

Because Thomas Jefferson was a widower when he became president, Dolley Madison, along with his daughters Martha Randolph and Maria Eppes, helped him entertain. Jefferson did not believe that women should participate in politics, as he had seen them do in Revolutionary Paris, so his daughters’ role at his dinners was mainly ornamental. Not so Dolley Madison, who seated herself at the head of the table when she became rst lady.

Sarah Yorke Jackson

Andrew Jackson was newly widowed when he came to the White House in March 1829. He was helped in

his hosting duties by his daughters-in-law, Emily Donelson and Sarah Yorke Jackson. Emily, his wife’s niece, was married to his foster son and his presidential secretary A. J. Donelson. Sarah was the wife of his adopted son. Sarah continued as hostess following Emily’s death near the end

of Jackson’s second term in of ce.

Angelica Singleton Van Buren

Martin Van Buren
was a widower when he became president in 1837. He was aided in White House social functions by
his daughter-in-law Angelica Singleton Van Buren, the wife
of his son Abraham. Former First Lady Dolley Madison
had been their matchmaker. Angelica was well-tutored in the social graces, having attended a female academy in South Carolina and a French school in Philadelphia.

Harriet Lane

James Buchanan was a bachelor when he became president
in 1857. His niece, Harriet Lane, for whom he was legal guardian, managed social events in the White House. While Buchanan had a troubled presidency, Harriet is ranked among the most popular rst ladies. She used her position to promote music

and the arts and to advocate various reform causes— setting a trend for rst ladies of the future.

Rose Cleveland

Grover Cleveland rst entered the Executive Mansion in 1885 as a bachelor and consequently hostess duties fell

to his sister, Rose Elizabeth Cleveland.
A scholar, lecturer
and teacher by training, the feminist Rose continued her intellectual pursuits while rst lady and
in 1885 published “George Eliot’s Poetry and Other Studies.” President Cleveland’s June 1886 White House wedding to the young Frances Folsom ended Rose’s tenure as rst lady, and she gladly returned to her successful literary career.

All photos: Prints and Photographs Division

curators’ PICKS

January/February 2017 |




In 1856 Jared Sparks, retired president of Harvard, received a letter from an autograph-seeker who wanted a sample of George Washington’s handwriting. Sparks rummaged in the papers he had taken from Mount Vernon decades earlier, snipped two fragments from a speech, and pinned them to his reply. He apologized that he had no signatures left, since “collectors have long ago exhausted my stock.”

The speech Sparks cut up was the rst draft of George Washington’s rst inaugural address. Washington had commissioned it from poet David Humphreys, but after copying out all 73 pages, decided not to use it.

Sparks acquired his “stock” in 1827 when he visited Mount Vernon to begin work on what would become his 12-volume “Writings of George Washington.” With the permission
of Bushrod Washington, the president’s nephew, Sparks borrowed Washington’s papers and took them home to Massachusetts to work on.

The irony of Sparks’ destruction of Washington’s speech

Manuscript Division

is that he was an early and in uential promoter of the preservation of what he called the “materials of American history.” However, he also believed that manuscripts that had “nothing in them to command the admiration, or awaken the sympathy of mankind” did not deserve preservation.

In an 1827 letter to Sparks, James Madison explained his belief that only Washington’s sensitivity to Humphreys’ feelings led him to consider “so strange” an address at all. Since so little of it is left, it is hard to characterize it

in its entirety, though it must have been an amalgam of Washington’s and Humphreys’ thinking. Today the surviving fragments are mostly in private hands. The Library of Congress has copies of many of them (pictured). The address that Washington did deliver at his inauguration in 1789 is with the rest of his papers, safe and unsnipped, in the Library’s Manuscript Division.

—Julie Miller is a historian in the Library’s Manuscript Division.

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine




Two centuries after his death, Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) is being introduced to new generations through the popular musical named for him. Based on Ron Chernow’s 2005 biography of Hamilton and adapted for the stage by Lin-Manuel Miranda, “Hamilton: An American Musical” depicts one of the 18th- century statesman’s many contributions to the new nation—as a principal author of a work known as “ e Federalist.”

Considered to be a signi cant American
contribution to political thought, “ e Federalist” is “a collection of essays written in favour of the new Constitution, as agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787.”

e work is among the 100 titles selected by the Library of Congress in 2013 as “Books at Shaped America.” ousands of readers responded with their choices, and the top 40 vote-getters were added to the list in 2016. e Library’s exhibitions of the books on these lists may be viewed online.

Eighty-four of the essays rst appeared in New York newspapers between October 1787 and August 1788 under the pseudonym “Publius.” All 85 essays were published in two volumes by J. and A. McLean in New York in 1788. Although it was widely known that the 85 essays were the work of Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, the initial curious speculation about authorship of speci c essays gradually developed into a heated controversy.

Hamilton left an authorship list with his lawyer before his fatal
duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804. In his copy of the published edition, Madison identi ed the author of each essay with their initials. omas Je erson penned a similar authorship list in his copy. None of these attributions exactly match, and the authorship of several essays is still being debated by scholars.



“The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution,” Vols. 1 and 2, New York: J. and A. McLean, 1788 | American Imprint Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division


“Books That Shaped America”

“America Reads”

—Audrey Fischer

January/February 2017 |



In today’s presidential campaigns, sound bites abound

on radio and
television, websites
and social-
media platforms.
Candidates in
modern times
have used already-
popular songs for
their campaign
music, but in the past songs were often written speci cally for and about candidates.

The Library of Congress holds campaign sheet music representing elections from 1868 to 1920. Looking at these songs can inform students and researchers about past political parties, issues of the day and presidential nominees—including how a candidate wanted to be perceived

A century ago, President Woodrow Wilson was challenged by former New York Gov. Charles Hughes for a second term. At the time of the 1916 campaign, the Mexican Revolution was taking place south of the U.S. border. Across the Atlantic, the Great War was well underway.

With words and lyrics by Robert Mortimer, “Stonewall Wilson” (pictured) hearkened back to Confederate Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson to portray Wilson as a strong military leader.

Mortimer wrote, “Danger lurks upon the seas, Foes are on the border. But with Wilson at the front, We’ll keep our house in order.”

Wilson won by a narrow margin, becoming the rst Democrat since Andrew Jackson to be elected to two consecutive terms.

His second term would witness America’s entry into World War I and passage of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving women the right to vote.

—Tom Bober was the Library’s 2015-16 audiovisual teacher-in-residence.

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

Music Division


Established by the founding fathers, the Electoral College system still decides the outcome of presidential elections




The June 12, 1907, cover of “Puck” magazine shows three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan greeting Uncle Sam on the “Electoral College” campus. Louis M. Glackens, N.Y. : J. Ottmann Lith. Co., Prints and Photographs Division

When Americans go to the polls
to elect a president, they are participating in an election process that dates back to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Not only do they cast individual
ballots that comprise the popular vote, but they participate in a system under which they elect representatives called “electors,” who pledge to vote for particular candidates in their stead. ose electors are members of a body known as the Electoral College.

e concept of the Electoral College—although not speci cally mentioned by name—appears
in Article II, Section I of the U.S. Constitution. It represents the Founding Fathers’ e ort to create a mechanism by which the states select the president and vice president of the United States.

Section I created a select group of electors, determined by state. e number of electoral votes awarded to each state is equal to the number of senators and representatives that state possesses. For example, California has two senators and 53 representatives, so the state has 55 electoral votes. e states cast their electoral votes through the 538 electors who comprise the

Electoral College. e candidate who receives a majority of the electoral votes—currently at least 270—is declared the winner.

e Founders established the Electoral College in the Constitution as a compromise between election of the president by a vote in Congress and election of the president by a popular vote of quali ed citizens. Alexander Hamilton,

a New York delegate to the Constitutional Convention, shed some light on the intent of the founders through his description of the Electoral College in the Federalist Papers,

a collection of essays written in 1787-1788
in support of the federal Constitution as rati cation conventions met in each state. In essay #68, Hamilton stated that “the sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be con ded.” He also expressed the importance of having electors, who he expected were

“men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station, and acting under circumstances favorable to deliberation, and to a judicious combination of all the reasons and inducements which were proper to govern their choice.”

election resulted in a president ( John Adams) and vice president ( omas Je erson) from di erent parties. e 1800 election resulted
in a tie between omas Je erson and Aaron Burr. e election was decided by the House of Representatives in favor of Je erson for president and Burr as vice president, by default.

In order to avoid such challenges in the future, Congress drafted the 12th Amendment, which re ned the electoral process so that the president and vice president were elected separately. By the Civil War, the system had been further re ned such that each presidential candidate had a running mate on its party’s ticket, making the selection of a vice president an indirect choice.

e 12th amendment was proposed by Congress on Dec. 9, 1803, and was rati ed by the requisite three-fourths of state legislatures on June 15, 1804. But the 19th century saw several bitter contests in which candidates carried the Electoral College, but lost the popular vote. In 1824, Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but none of the four candidates received a majority of

the Electoral College. As a result, the election was decided by the House of Representatives,

Vice President, Al Gore, held a slim popular vote victory. After recounting the votes in Florida, Bush was declared the winner in that state by
a margin of 537 votes. Numerous court battles ensued. ose lawsuits escalated to the U.S. Supreme Court, where its nal 5-4 decision resulted in Florida’s electoral votes going to George W. Bush.

e 2016 election resulted in an Electoral College win for Donald Trump while Hillary Clinton garned the popular vote—once again focusing national attention on the Electoral College system.


Election Law

Legal Resources on Elections nd/elections.php

Presidential Elections and the Electoral College

Teachers Resources on Elections

An illustration in the March 10, 1877, issue of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper shows the Electoral Commission meeting in secret. Prints and Photographs Division

In addition to having the bene t of such educated and interested individuals involved in the election of the president, the state-dependent Electoral College system was also intended to avoid a scenario where a populous region of the country was able to elect a candidate who enjoyed great popularity within that region, but not neccessarily in other areas.

Despite these lofty ambitions the Electoral College system did not operate as intended during the elections of 1796 and 1800. Speci cally, the practice of voting for two individuals for president, with the runner-up becoming vice president, was awed. e 1796

which selected John Quincy Adams. In the 1876 election, Samuel Tilden won the popular vote, but after a lengthy, bitter dispute over
the electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina, Rutherford B. Hayes carried the Electoral College. e storm over this result only intensi ed after a controversial electoral commission was created to resolve the dispute, and determined the result via a vote along party lines. Again, in 1888, incumbent president Grover Cleveland won the popular vote but lost the Electoral College to Benjamin Harrison.

In the 2000 presidential election George W. Bush won the Electoral College while the sitting

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |

Barbara Bavis is an instructional librarian and Robert Brammer is a senior legal reference specialist in the Law Library of Congress








Presidential candidates have used popular culture to promote their campaigns for nearly 200 years.


Clockwise from top left: William Henry Harrison and John
Tyler emblem from
the 1840 presidential campaign | Prints and Photographs Division; Andrew Jackson ticket | Rare Book and Special Collections Division; campaign buttons

from the presidential campaigns of Ulysses S. Grant and Abraham Lincoln | Prints and Photographs Division

Today’s political candidates can reach millions of people— on a 24/7 basis—in ways their predecessors could only dream of.

American presidential campaigns from 1789 through the 1820s were di erent from modern ones in almost every way. Presidential candidates thought it was undigni ed to campaign. Political parties

were embryonic and in ux—nothing like the organizational powerhouses they are today. Before the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 there was no mass electorate. In most states, legislatures, not citizens, chose presidential electors. Enslaved people, free women, and free propertyless men— constituting most of the adult population at the time—were denied the vote.

roughout this period, however, both an electorate and campaign machinery began to develop. As Americans moved west and into cities, states began to drop their property requirements for voting. Citizens gradually replaced state legislatures as voters in presidential elections. Political parties evolved from informal “factions” into e ective organizations. By the early 1830s, cheap newspapers, known as the “penny press,” allied themselves with political parties, and a growing network of roads, canals and railroads began to carry political information nationwide.

By the Jacksonian era and the elections immediately following, presidential candidates still let their surrogates do most of their campaigning for them. As the franchise continued to expand to include more working-class and propertyless male voters, campaigns involved greater popular participation. e presidential election process was also increasingly competitive and campaign posters began to appear.

In the 1836 presidential election, the Whig Party chose former military commander William Henry Harrison of Ohio to challenge Democrat

LCM | Library of Congress

January/February 2017 |




Martin Van Buren, the incumbent vice president. A past New York governor, senator and secretary of state, Van Buren was a consummate politician.
It was during the 1836 campaign that the donkey—that faithful beast of burden who could also be an ornery, strong-willed opponent—emerged

as the symbol of the Democratic Party. In his 1870s illustrations, political cartoonist omas Nast would associate the elephant with the Republican Party, which succeeded the Whig Party.

e presidential campaign of 1840 is often called the rst “modern” grassroots campaign. It was also one that further solidi ed the two-party system of the time—Whigs and Democrats. e campaign was a rematch between Harrison and Van Buren. is time Harrison prevailed. e son
of an aristocratic Virginia family, Harrison was nonetheless depicted as a western folk hero. at image was in keeping with the party’s theme of “Log Cabin and Hard Cider Democracy” and Harrison’s frontier status as the rst governor of Indiana territory.

Harrison gained fame at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, part of a military campaign to suppress a confederation of Indians loyal to the Shawnee leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh. With southerner John Tyler of Virginia as Harrison’s vice presidential running mate, one of the most famous campaign slogans of all time emerged: “Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too.” Campaign souvenirs of all types proliferated, as did commercial products such as Tippecanoe Tobacco and Tippecanoe Soap. Political hype was high and campaigns became popular entertainment. e campaign song emerged, pairing political lyrics with popular tunes.

By the election of 1860, parades, banners and music were part of the
political landscape, as were newspapers that openly supported political parties. Advances in printing technology by the mid-19th century allowed Americans to express their political sympathies through their choice of cigars and stationery. Cigar box labels in 1860 included images of Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln and his democratic opponent, Stephen A. Douglas. For those who might have heard of “Honest Old Abe” and the “Little Giant” but had never seen their likenesses in print, the cigar box label introduced the candidates’ faces to the public.

Political buttons touting presidential candidates increased in popularity during the 19th century. Metal campaign buttons were available in 1860, but the election of 1896 saw the rst use of the mass-produced, pin-backed, metal buttons. ese became ubiquitous and collectible in 20th-century presidential campaigns and remain so today.

e electorate continued to expand. In 1870, the 15th Amendment granted the right to vote to male citizens “regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” e passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920 gave women nationwide the right to vote. e rst election in which all American women could vote was a match between two Ohioans— Democratic Governor James M. Cox and Republican Sen. Warren G. Harding, who prevailed. Campaigns reached out to the ladies, reminding them to do their civic duty and vote.

e advent of lm and radio in the early 20th century, followed by television in the early 1950s, provided even larger audiences for political campaigns. Dwight D. Eisenhower’s 1952 campaign for president was the rst to run a television advertisement. e black-and-white ad featured cartoon characters singing “I like Ike, You like Ike, Everybody likes Ike for President.”







1.“The Result of the Fifteenth Amendment,” May 19, 1870 | Metcalf and Clark, Prints and Photographs Division 2.1920 issue of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper reminds women to vote. Prints and Photographs Division 3. An Abraham Lincoln cigar box label | Manuscript Division 4-5. bumper stickers for Barry Goldwater and Richard Nixon


presidential campaigns | Manuscript Division 6. a screen shot from the “Daisy Girl” television ad sponsored by Goldwater’s 1964 campaign | Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division 7. Jack Kemp in 1988 license plate | Manuscript Division 8-9. campaign buttons for Wendell Willkie’s 1940 campaign and for the John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson ticket in 1960 | Manuscript Division

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |



In 2016, e Washington Post presented a podcast series called “Presidential” that featured 44 episodes examining the American presidents during the months leading up to the November election. Hosted by Lillian Cunningham, editor of e Washington Post’s “On Leadership” section, and archived online, the series features interviews with journalists, biographers, historians and other experts on the American presidency. Among them are Julie Miller, Barbara Bair and Michelle Krowl, three historians from the Library’s Manuscript Division who together discussed 17 presidents from George Washington to William H. Taft. eir remarks were informed by primary sources, including presidential papers, housed in the Library of Congress.

As curator of the papers of the earliest presidents, Miller was the rst of her colleagues to be interviewed. Cunningham asked a question
that she would pose in reference to each of the presidents: What would it be like to go on a blind date with George Washington? Miller observed that Washington, as a model 18th- century gentleman, knew how to dress, how to dance, and how to behave in public. He would have been a charming date, as the widowed Martha Custis discovered. Miller also noted that institutions such as the Library of Congress care for primary sources such as the letters in George Washington’s papers because each generation will want to bring its own questions to them, such as the one Cunningham posed.

Bair joined NPR reporter Steve Inskeep and biographer Jon Meacham in analyzing the limitations of Jacksonian democracy. She spoke of Jackson as a “man of the people.” But which people? In solidifying white land ownership

in the South and fostering the expansion of slavery and the repression of Indians, Jackson primarily represented “white wage workers and [those] who wanted to settle on farms,” as well
as the “southern slave-owning gentry.” Bair and historian Mark Cheathem looked at the “Little Magician” Martin Van Buren as a political master-mind, and commented on the rise of
the two-party system. William Henry Harrison died soon after taking o ce, likely from the contaminated water supply in Washington. Bair read a letter documenting the trepidation Vice President John Tyler expressed upon nding himself unexpectedly the leader of the land. Tyler

set the precedent for vice presidents taking on the full power of o ce

in event of a presidential death—even ones that violated the political platform of their own party.

Krowl suggested that presidents sometimes make surprising moves. Chester A. Arthur supported civil service reform, though his history made him the least likely person to support political change. Adding to observations by Stateline executive editor Scott Greenberger, Krowl demonstrated how the Arthur papers at the Library of Congress help ll in the details of Arthur’s story. Documenting Arthur’s life is challenging because he ordered

the destruction of most of his personal papers
just before his death. Elements of his life and character must be gleaned from the limited sources that were saved. ese include a love letter to his ancée, a few letters to a bosom friend in early adulthood, an abundance of bills and receipts and a particularly interesting set of letters written by a woman named Julia Sand, who encouraged Arthur to make a positive contribution as president. “Julia Sand saw something noble in Arthur,” Krowl said. “She urged him to create a presidential legacy that was ‘pure and bright.’ Signi cantly, her letters were among the few that were saved.”


Listen to Presidential Podcasts
Subscribe for free on iTunes or listen on the Washington Post website dential-podcast/

From left: Historians Barbara Bair, Julie Miller and Michelle Krowl | Shawn Miller

January/February 2017 |



Screen shot of the Library’s U.S. Elections Web Archive

A decade later, television ads would become more dramatic, with Lyndon Johnson’s “Daisy Girl” ad against Barry Goldwater. Created by media consultant Tony Schwartz, whose collection is housed at the Library, the ad featured a child counting daisy petals, followed by a countdown to a nuclear explosion. “ ese are the stakes,” warned Johnson. e spot only ran once but remains one of the most memorable in the annals of campaign ads. Negative ads continue to be a mainstay of political campaigns today.

In the post-war era, Americans took to the new interstates in their cars and soon bumper stickers proliferated. Later in the 20th century, personalized or “vanity” license plates began promoting candidates.

As it had a century earlier, technological development at the turn of the 21st century—namely the internet—ushered in a new model of political campaigning. e web also allows the Library a new means of documenting modern campaigns. Since 2000, the Library has archived websites related to the U.S. presidential, congressional and gubernatorial elections.

Al Gore, the 2000 Democratic presidential candidate, was a big proponent of the “information superhighway,” but Barack Obama was the rst presidential candidate to harness the power of social media. His use of
social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook began in early 2007. On the eve of the 2008 election, Obama had more than 1 million “friends” on Facebook—signi cantly more than his opponent, John McCain. By the 2012 presidential campaign, both Obama and his Republican opponent, Mitt Romney, were actively campaigning on social media.

Use of Twitter by both candidates in the 2016 presidential election was unprecedented. Both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton tweeted into the wee hours of the morning, delivering their messages directly to the voters, and reaching them in record numbers. e 2017 inauguration promises to set new records for all of today’s social media platforms.

Julie Miller, Barbara Bair and Michelle Krowl are historians in the Library’s Manuscript Division.


U.S. Elections Web Archive

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine


American women have sought the presidential nomination for more than a century.



LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |


Hillary Clinton made history in the summer of 2016 when she became the rst woman nominated by a major party to run for president of the United States.

Many women helped pave the way over the years, having run for president as third-party candidates and as potential Democratic or Republican party nominees. Some of them ran for president long before women could vote in the United States, when it was unusual for women to seek any public o ce, and when women in professions of any kind were still viewed as pioneers.

Women who have run for president faced not just the usual forms of judgment regarding background, viewpoints and experience. ey carried with them the burden of masculine de nitions of leadership itself—ideas of who looks or seems “presidential.”

Some women ran to promote particular issues, reacting to events speci c to their day or developments within their own political parties. All needed to deal with, or overcome, stereotypes about women and systemic prejudices based on long-held beliefs about the suitability of women for public o ce. Each candidate built on the precedent of women who had come before her—be they female members of Congress, activist First Ladies, or fellow stalwarts who, like themselves, had entered the presidential fray.

e century between 1872 and 1972 is a particularly signi cant one in the history of women candidates for U.S. president. Victoria Cla in Woodhull

has the honor of setting o the whole tradition stretching from the 19th century to today, as a candidate for the Equal Rights Party in the 1872 election. Woodhull was an avowed feminist and su ragist. Her party stood for the eight-hour day for working people, income-tax reform, free love and sexual liberation, and the equality of women—including in legal matters such as divorce. To say she was before her time is to under emphasize how long these positions have been part of American culture. Woodhull in many ways thrived on controversy and scandal. She is forever memorialized in omas Nast’s famous political cartoon of 1872 for “Harper’s Weekly,” in which she was quite literally demonized. Nast depicted Woodhull with bat wings under the title “Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan!”

e forthright Belva Ann Lockwood was an admired champion for the cause of social justice. She not only became an attorney but, in 1879, long before the thought of female Supreme Court justices, she became the rst woman admitted to the U.S. Supreme Court bar. In 1884 and 1888 she mounted National Equal Rights Party campaigns for the presidency of the United States, motivated to raise the public pro le of the rights of women to vote and to have a place in party politics. e rst woman to appear on o cial ballots, Lockwood was lampooned by “Puck” and other publications. She

did poorly at the polls, but succeeded in her goal by getting her issues into popular debate. “I cannot vote” said Lockwood, “but I can be voted for.”

From left: Belva Lockwood, 1880– 1890 | Brady-Handy Collection; Patsy Mink, 1960–1970; Shirley Chisholm, 1972 | Thomas J. O’Halloran, U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection; Hillary Clinton accepts the Democratic

Party’s nomination for Presidenton July 28, 2016, A. Shaker | Voice of America

Clockwise from left: Political cartoon by Thomas Nast for Feb. 17, 1872, issue of Harper’s Weekly depicts Victoria Woodhull, female candidate for president. Goldstein Foundation Collection; Margaret Chase Smith takes the oath of of ce to ll the House seat left vacant by her husband

in June 1940; North Carolina Senator Elizabeth Dole, 2006, Bonnie Englebardt Lautenberg

All photos | Prints and Photographs Division

boundaries of their own party platforms in more progressive directions and to win inroads for women and people of color within the rules governing Democratic Party conventions.

In 1964, Mink became the rst Asian American woman elected to Congress. She was recruited into the presidential race by Oregon liberals in 1971 to represent voters who were strongly opposed to the Vietnam War—an e ort to force frontrunner George McGovern into making the war a centerpiece

of the election. She appeared on primary ballots in Oregon, Wisconsin and Maryland. Supporters were urged to “ ink Mink.”

Chisholm was the rst African American woman elected to Congress and a founding member of the Congressional Black Caucus. “Fighting Shirley” ran “unbought and unbossed” to promote the rights of women and African Americans. She appeared on the primary ballots of 12 states.

e true battleground proved to be the Democratic National Convention in Miami, when rules broadening representation in the wake of the 1968 convention went into e ect. e National Women’s Political Caucus challenged the seating of delegates and pushed for a woman to chair the event.

Another rst was reached in 1972 when Frances “Sissy” Farenthold’s name was put forward among vice presidential nominees. e party would not have a woman run as vice president until the Walter Mondale-Geraldine Ferraro campaign of 1984. Republicans would reach a similar milestone in 2008 with the John McCain-Sarah Palin ticket.

Many women have run for president over the past 40 years—Ellen McCormack, Sonia Johnson, Patricia Schroeder, Lenora Falani, Elizabeth Dole, Michele Bachmann, Jill Stein and Carly Fiorina, among them. But the 2016 presidential campaign was the rst to place a woman at the top of a major party ticket.


Patsy T. Mink Papers in the Library of Congress

U.S. Representatives, including Nita Lowey, Pat Schroeder, Patsy Mink, Jolene Unsoeld, Eleanor Holmes Norton and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, walk

by the U.S. Capitol
on their way to the Senate, 1992. Maureen Keating, CQ/Roll Call Photograph Collection

Barbara Bair is a historian in the Library’s Manuscript Division.

January/February 2017 |



LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

Margaret Chase Smith broke ground as a Republican Party candidate
for president in the 1964 campaign. She was seasoned politician who represented the state of Maine in both the House and the Senate. She was the only woman when she joined the Senate in 1949. A prominent member of the House Armed Services Committee, she advocated an expanded role for women in the military. She was a voice for independent thought within her own party. Announcement of her candidacy, greeted with huge applause by the national women’s press corps, unsettled party hopefuls Nelson Rockefeller and Barry Goldwater. Rumors of a “Barry-Maggie” presidential ticket proved not to be.

1972 was a banner year for Democratic Party women, with the candidacies of Patsy Takemoto Mink and Shirley Chisholm. Both ran to push the




WHAT: National Book Festival Videos
WHEN: Year-round

THE LIBRARY’S 2016 NATIONAL BOOK FESTIVAL, held Sept. 24 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington, D.C., was notable for several debuts—the
rst major public appearance
of newly-sworn-in Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden, and
the festival debut of best-selling author Stephen King. e Library of Congress website o ers videos
of nearly all of the presenters. Videos from some of the Library’s past book festivals can also be accessed on the website, along with advance podcast interviews with participating authors.

View National Book Festival events online January/February 2017 |





Five dollar bill portrait of Abraham Lincoln, Anthony Berger, Prints and Photographs Division

First printed edition of the preliminary version of
the Emancipation Proclamation, Washington, D.C., Sept. 22, 1862 | Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana, Rare Book and Special Collections Division

newly digitized papers of James Monroe and Andrew Jackson were added to this new web platform in 2015, followed by the papers of Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor. e Franklin Pierce, James K. Polk and Ulysses S. Grant papers are slated to go online in 2017, as will a new version of the Lincoln papers, produced in partnership with the papers of Abraham Lincoln in Spring eld, Illinois. Also available will be smaller collections, such as the papers of Millard Fillmore and James Buchanan, which are not counted among the Library’s 23 presidential collections but supplement principal collections held in other repositories.

Like the original presidential papers and the micro lm copies, the digital versions have
been used extensively by historians, educators, students and lifelong learners. But what was
once only available to researchers on a library micro lm machine is now becoming accessible on computers and mobile devices, any time of day, all over the world.

—Janice E. Ruth is assistant chief of the Library’s Manuscript Division.


Search Presidential Papers Online

From left: George Washington letter to his mother and portrait | George Washington Papers; Thomas Jefferson portrait and draft of his inaugural address | Thomas Jefferson Papers; Andrew Jackson inaugural address and portrait | Andrew Jackson Papers John Tyler portrait and letter to his daughter | John Tyler Papers

All images | Manuscript Division

e papers of 23 U.S. presidents— ranging from George Washington to Calvin Coolidge—are foremost among the Library’s manuscript collections. ese treasured acquisitions predate the presidential library system, administered

by the National Archives and Records System, which has oversight for the papers of the presidents beginning with Herbert Hoover.

Arguably, no other body of material in the Manuscript Division is of greater signi cance for the study of American history than the presidential collections. Viewed as a whole, they contain some of the most important manuscript treasures in the nation, from Washington’s

rst inaugural address to Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points for negotiating the end of World War I. ey cover a broad sweep of American history, documenting periods of prosperity
and depression, war and peace. ey trace the development of American foreign policy, the roles of political organizations and interest groups and the struggles over de nitions of citizenship and the extension of legal rights to African Americans and women. ey also re ect the battle over states’ rights and slavery, which led to the nation’s greatest crisis—the Civil War—and left a legacy after Reconstruction that reverberated a century later in the civil rights movement.

So important are the division’s presidential

papers that Congress passed an act in August 1957 directing the Library to arrange, index, and micro lm these collections for distribution to libraries around the nation. is mammoth e ort began a year later and concluded in 1976.

e presidential papers were among the rst manuscripts proposed for digitizing when the technology became available in the mid-1990s. Under that program, the micro lm editions of the papers of George Washington, omas Je erson, James Madison, and Abraham Lincoln—totaling 368,948 images—were digitized and put online between 1998 and 2005.

In 2010, work began to digitize the remaining presidential micro lm collections, resulting in more than 3 million additional images that will be put online, including about 462,600 images from the eodore Roosevelt Papers scanned in collaboration with Dickinson State University in North Dakota. Also added to the image set for each collection are scans of original items acquired since the micro lm editions were created.

In recent years, the Washington, Je erson,
and Madison collections have migrated to a new upgraded web platform, which allows for continued improvements across collections and provides better access on mobile devices. e

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine


favorite PLACES




How would you describe your work at the Library?

I am production coordinator for the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog. I write
blog posts and contribute to our Twitter feed. e goal of Educational Outreach is to make primary sources an integral part of classroom activities. Primary sources can engage students, and encourage critical thinking, analysis and exploration. I assist in the creation of teacher resources including Primary Source sets and eBooks. My favorite task is serving as the team’s Ask-a-Librarian contact, answering questions from teachers throughout the world.

How did you prepare for your current position?

I have a bachelor’s degree in public administration and a master’s degree in college student personnel from Miami University. After serving as a dorm director and an academic counselor, I needed

a change. When I considered other careers, I realized I enjoy providing information. at, along with a love of libraries bred by the Enoch Pratt library system in Baltimore, my hometown, led me to librarianship.

I started at the Library of Congress in 1998 as part of the National Digital Library, providing reference support for the Library’s American Memory project— a gateway to the Library rich primary-source materials relating to the history and culture of the United States. I subsequently worked with the Digital Reference Section and later joined Educational Outreach.

I have held leadership positions in several professional associations. Most recently, I served as president of the Society of American Archivists in 2013-14.

How has technology changed the way the Library shares its resources with students and educators?

Digitizing and providing online access to the resources of the Library of Congress in the early 1990s coincided with school districts asking teachers to use primary sources in the classroom. at was truly perfect timing!

e explosion of educational technology has spurred our work. We have converted several Primary Source Sets into eBooks. we read teachers through webinars and our Teaching With Primary Sources partners. Teachers can also access content when it’s convenient for them on the Teachers channel of the Library of Congress YouTube page.

How can the Library help educators teach students about the electoral process?

As the home of the papers of 23 American presidents (from George Washington to Calvin Coolidge), the Library has much to o er teachers and students in the way of election history. A special online presentation documents the presidential inaugurations. e Library’s Chronicling America website allows users to see how historical newspapers (1789-1922) covered the presidents.

Educational Outreach sta recently updated our online “Elections” feature. e “Presidential Inaugurations” feature will soon be updated. e Law Library of Congress, and the Library’s Prints and Photographs and Music Divisions have special online presentations about elections and inaugurations.

In the case of 21st-century elections, the Library has been archiving websites pertaining to presidential, congressional and gubernatorial elections since 2000.



James Madison
Memorial Building
Room 101
101 Independence Ave. S.E. Washington, D.C. 20540


Mondays – Saturdays 8:30 a.m. – 5 p.m.

Manuscript Reading Room:

Reference Assistance:

202.707.5387 ask-mss.html

Reader Registration: readerregistration.html

LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |

THE MANUSCRIPT READING ROOM is the access point for more than 65.5 million processed manuscripts in over 11,900 collections, including the papers of

23 American presidents, from George Washington to Calvin Coolidge. e reading room is open to researchers over high school age with a valid Library of

Congress reader registration card and a speci c research purpose. Researchers are encouraged to write or call in advance since many collections are located o -site and advance notice is needed to retrieve these items for research use. A growing number of manuscript collections are available on the Library of Congress website.

Shawn Miller

Abby Brack Lewis










e historic Ceremonial O ce in the Library’s omas Je erson Building is now open to the public. Previously visited only by permission, the o ce is now open for public viewing from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Saturday, with the exception of periodic times when it is needed for o cial business. e Ceremonial O ce was the o ce of the Librarian of Congress for more than 80 years, from 1897 to 1980, until the working o ce was moved across the street to the newly opened James Madison Memorial Building. Since 1980, the room has been used for ceremonial purposes. Visiting kings, queens, presidents and other heads of state have viewed treasures from the Library’s collections in the privacy of this room. e Je erson Building opened its doors

to the public on Nov. 1, 1897. Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress was housed in various locations within the U. S. Capitol Building prior to 1897.



e Library of Congress, the Royal Collection Trust and King’s College London signed a memorandum of understanding in which they agree to share resources to aid in the digitization of the papers of King George III (1738-1820), the English monarch in power when the American colonies declared independence, creating a new nation. Some 85 percent of the items in the archive, based at England’s Windsor Castle, have never before been examined by scholars. ey include correspondence, maps and royal household ledgers. Work to be done under the cooperative agreement will also include making the materials available to scholars; holding a conference at the Library of Congress about using collections at various institutions in a synergistic manner; and laying the groundwork for a future exhibition at the Library of Congress.




Historian, author, librarian and presidential speechwriter Edward L. (Ted) Widmer, a senior fellow and adjunct professor of history at Brown University, has been appointed director of the
John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress. Widmer served as special assistant to President Bill Clinton for National Security A airs and director for speechwriting at the National Security Council, from 1997-2000. From 2006-2012, he directed the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. In 2012,Widmer served as senior adviser to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. He then returned to Brown as assistant to the president of Brown University for special projects (2012-2015). Widmer holds an A.B. in the history and literature of France and America, an A.M. in history, and a Ph.D. in the history of American civilization, all from Harvard University. Established in 2000 through a generous endowment from philanthropist John W. Kluge, the center invites distinguished scholars from around the world to conduct research at the Library of Congress.


e winners of the 2016 Library of Congress Literacy Awards are WETA Reading Rockets of Arlington, Virginia; the Parent-Child Home Program of Garden City, New York; and Libraries Without Borders of Paris, France. Reading Rocket works with more than 50 national partner organizations to promote literacy and reading. Parent-Child Home Program develops school readiness in children with disadvantages. Libraries Without Borders supports community development in 20 countries around the world through the promotion of literacy. Sponsored by philanthropist David M. Rubenstein, who originated the awards program in January 2013 the Library

of Congress Literacy Awards honor organizations working to promote literacy and reading in the United States and worldwide. e awards recognize groups doing exemplary, innovative and replicable work, and they spotlight the need for the global community to unite in striving for universal literacy.


1. Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden interviews Gershwin Prize for Popular Song recipient Smokey Robinson in the Library’s Gershwin Room.

2. “Diary of a Wimpy Kid” series author Jeff Kinney enters the Coolidge Auditorium for the launch of his latest book, “Double Down.”

3. Literacy Awards benefactor David Rubenstein interviews 2016 award winners Allister Chang, Sarah Walzer and Noel Gunther on Oct. 27.

4. Secretary of the Army Eric Fanning speaks with Colleen Shogan of National and International Outreach about his career and the future of the Army during a conversation in the Members Room on Nov. 22.

5. John Montgomery, a luthier, inspects and cleans instruments from the Library’s Stradivari collection.

All photos | Shawn Miller

6. An all-star cast of performers pays tribute to Smokey Robinson during the 2016 Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song concert at Washington’s DAR Constitution Hall on Nov 16. The program will air Feb. 10 on PBS stations nationwide.


LCM | Library of Congress Magazine

January/February 2017 |


THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SHOP o ers many items inspired by presidents and presidential campaigns.




“ ere is no place on Earth I’d rather be than the Library of Congress. I got wonderful help
in every reading room that I used here, and I used just about every one. But I must especially single out the Manuscript Division [and its] very knowledgeable sta .”

So said award-winning historian and U.S. diplomat Elizabeth Brown Pryor when she discussed her book about Robert E. Lee at the Library in 2007.

At the time of her death in a car accident on April 13, 2015, Pryor had just completed a
new book on Abraham Lincoln, drawing on the Lincoln papers in the Library’s Manuscript Division. Also researched at the Library, Pryor’s 1987 biography, “Clara Barton, Professional Angel,” is considered the authoritative work on the founder of the American Red Cross.

During her lifetime, Pryor not only expressed
her gratitude to the Library in words. She also remembered the Library’s Manuscript Division in her will. A bequest from her estate will support a summer intern in the Manuscript Division. e rst Pryor intern joined the Wolfskill Trust Fund Intern in the Manuscript Division as part of the Library’s 2016 Junior Fellows Summer Internship Program.

Named for a longtime Manuscript Division
sta member who retired as the head of the division’s Reference and Reader Services Section in 2005, the Mary Wolfskill Trust Fund is used to support internships in the Manuscript Division that will foster interest in archival work among graduate and undergraduate students, particularly minorities or students from smaller and lesser- known schools. e fund was established in Wolfskill’s memory with a generous gift from her sister, Edie Hedlin of Arlington, Virginia. e rst Wolfskill intern was appointed in 2009.

Interns in the Manuscript Division Reading Room assist the sta and researchers in accessing the division’s collection of more than 65 million items relating to American history and culture.

Under the direction of the professional sta , interns respond to reference inquiries received via telephone, electronic means, or in-person; analyze reference requests; investigate sources of information; draft, revise, and deliver responses; retrieve and re-shelved manuscript materials; and compile reader usage statistics. e interns have also worked on special nding aids projects that improve researcher access to the materials, and select items of interest for a special Library display.

Logan Tapscott, the 2015 Wolfskill summer intern, summed up her experience in a Library blog post:

“Each day, I learn something new while working in the reading room, such as nding the location of a particular collection or how to assist readers accessing collections. I don’t have a favorite collection, but I enjoy nding collections through the simple but large online catalog entries, published shelf lists and walking through the individual doors of the stacks. is is my adventure!”


Make a Gift to the Library

Phone 202.707.2777

Library of Congress Internships

From left: Junior Fellow Mohamed Abdirahman and Wolfskill Summer Intern Logan Tapscott, discuss their work in the Manuscript Division at a special display on July 30, 2015. Shawn Miller

January/February 2017 |


Presidential Campaign Posters

Product # 21107143 Price: $40

100 ready-to-frame posters from the campaigns of Andrew Jackson to Barack Obama

Presidential Slogans Mug

Product # 21505059 Price: $13.95

Features 29 classic campaign slogans on one mug

U.S. Presidents Baseball

Product # 21505040 Price: $8.95

Pitch this baseball with portraits of the presidents and their signatures.



White House Pop-up book

Product # 21106112 Price: $19.95

This book unfolds in three dimensions to reveal the most famous residence in the world.

Lincoln Bobblehead

Product # 21505075 Price: $23.95

Remember the 16th president with this 8-inch likeness.

Lincoln Bible (facsimile)

Product # 21120283 Price: $50

Own this facsimile of the Bible used at Abraham Lincoln’s rst inauguration on March 4, 1861.

MORE INFORMATION | Order online: | Order by phone: 888.682.3557 LCM | Library of Congress Magazine



The Washington Nationals’ racing presidents sprint through the Library’s Great Hall. Shealah Craighead


e most important decision that I have to make when I choose who I’m going to write about is who I’m going to want to wake up with in the morning and go to bed with at night, because it takes me so long to write my books. It took me longer to write about Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and World War II than it took the war to be fought! It took 10 years to write about Abraham Lincoln— twice as long as the Civil War. So knowing that I’m going to spend that amount of time … it has to be somebody that I really care about, feel a ection for and am fascinated by—even if they’ll disappoint me at some point, as all people do, as human beings do.

Teddy Roosevelt always was somebody that interested me. I taught a seminar on the Progressive era when I was a young teacher at Harvard. So the combination of Teddy’s manic energy, his extraordinary intellect, his wide-ranging interests and that era at the turn of the 20th century—my favorite era—I thought, yes, this is the man I want to live with as a biographer.

So when I choose people like Abraham Lincoln or Franklin Roosevelt or Teddy Roosevelt, then the whole problem becomes that lots of other people have chosen to live with them, too. So, it’s not unique to be thinking of writing a biography of them. So in the case of my Lincoln biography, I had to come up with some angle that might be fresh. It became the team of rivals—Lincoln, William Seward, Salmon Chase, Edward Bates and eventually Edwin Stanton. With my book on FDR it became about FDR and Eleanor and the home front rather than the war front and World War II.

So, I started thinking what can I do to introduce characters besides Teddy Roosevelt? Early on in my research I read 400 letters housed in the Library
of Congress between Teddy and his successor, William Howard Taft. It was clear from the time they were in their early 30s that they had a really intimate friendship. Letters are the best! ere’s nothing better than diaries and letters when you’re a historian. I don’t know what will happen 200 years from now. ey’ll see how we walked and talked, but not necessarily have 10-page letters written to our families at night describing how we felt.

Seeing and reading those letters I realized that this friendship was more important than I knew. And, of course, I knew the friendship broke up, but I didn’t realize how hard the breakup was in 1912. So that was the second strand of the story—the Teddy-Taft relationship.

I also realized early on that Teddy Roosevelt’s great way of leadership was to have a partnership with the press unlike anything we’ve ever seen before or since. He invited them for lunch and dinner to his house. ey could criticize him, he could criticize them. At the time, the most important publication was “McClure’s Magazine,” run by this wonderfully manic-depressive, brilliant guy named Sam McClure. It had the best journalists probably ever assembled in one place at one time—Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Ste ens, Ray Baker and William Allen White. ese muckraking journalists created the investigations on Standard Oil, on the railroads, on the meat packing plants, on the corruption in the cities that mobilized the public to pressure the Congress from the outside in. So suddenly that was the third leg of my book. No wonder it took seven years to complete!

Doris Kearns Goodwin’s most recent book is “ e Bully Pulpit: eodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism.”


Listen to the full interview with Doris Kearns Goodwin

lcm | library oF congress magazine

Eric Levin








World War I: American Artists View the Great


Through May 6, 2017

America Reads

Jan. 21, 2017





200 Years



Destroyed trailer…

Destroyed trailer…


It is to my belief, that this destruction upon my bike an trailer was done, as a down right attack upon my possessions an lifestyle…


Throughout these images you will see, how my possession travelled, while some anonymous person…  Living within society, an un-honest person from humanity…


Whom didn’t even stop!


Just drove away!


Without a care in the world…


The start of the destruction image below;


Where my possessions ended up, below!



An society

looks @ those

living on the street